आयकर

 

  • आयकर क्या है ?

  • आयकर (Income Tax) एक प्रत्यक्ष-कर है जो किसी व्यक्ति की वार्षिक आमदनी पर लगता है व भारतीय संविधान की अनुसूची 7 के तहत आयकर विभाग को आयकर वसूलने का अधिकार दिया गया है.  आयकर विभाग भारत सरकार के वित्त मंत्रालय के अंतर्गत कार्यरत राजस्‍व विभाग का एक अंग है एवं यह केन्‍द्रीय प्रत्‍यक्ष कर बोर्ड (सीबीडीटी) द्वारा अभिशासित है। यहाँ व्यक्ति का अर्थ एक "व्यक्तिगत" या "हिन्दू अविभाजित परिवार (HUF)" या "फर्म" या "स्थानीय प्राधिकारी" या "सहकारी संस्था" या "घरेलू कम्पनी" या "विदेशी कम्पनी" होता है। 
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  • कुल आय की गणना करने के लिए सभी प्रकार की आय अर्थात वेतन, संपत्ति से होने वाली आय, व्यापार या नौकरी में हुआ लाभ, पूंजीगत लाभ, अन्य स्रोतों से होने वाली आय को शामिल करना होगा।  नियोजक द्वारा वेतनभोगी व्यक्ति को दिया गया नकद, ईनाम या सुविधा के रूप में दी गई चीज़ों को उस व्यक्ति की आय के रूप में गिना जाता है। व्यापारी को व्यापार में हुए लाभ को उसकी आय माना जाता है। ब्याज, लाभांश और छूट इत्यादि जैसे निवेशों को भी आय माना गया है। आयकर अधिनियम के अनुसार कानूनी और गैर-कानूनी सभी प्रकार की आय पर कर लागू होता है।
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  • अधिनियम के अनुसार व्यक्तियों द्वारा अर्जित विभिन्न प्रकार की आय का वर्गीकरण पांच शीर्षकों के अंतर्गत किया गया है जो निम्नलिखित हैं:-
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  • 1. वेतन से होने वाली आय (Income from Salary),
  • 2. संपत्ति से होने वाली आय (Income from House Property),
  • 3. व्यापार या नौकरी में हुआ लाभ (Income from Business or Profession),
  • 4. पूंजीगत लाभ (Income from Capital Gains),
  • 5. अन्य स्रोतों से होने वाली आय (Income from Other Sources).

 

पैन कार्ड (PAN Card) -

आयकर अधिनियम, 1961 की धारा 139A(1) के अनुसार निम्नलिखित कारणों में पैन (Permanent Account Number) लेना आवश्यक है-

  • 1. जिस व्यक्ति की आय कर-मुक्त आय (हाल में रू.2.5 लाख) से अधिक हो,
  • 2. किसी कारोबार या व्यवसाय का टर्नओवर रू.50 लाख से अधिक हो,
  • 3. जिसे धारा 139(4A) के तहत आयकर रिटर्न दाखिल कराना आवश्यक हो,
  • 4. किसी नियोक्ता (Employer) को धारा 115WD के तहत फ्रिंज बेनेफिट की रिटर्न दाखिल कराना आवश्यक हो,
  • 5. एक निवासी व्यक्ति के अलावा, जो एक वित्तीय वर्ष में दो लाख पचास हजार रुपये या उससे अधिक की राशि के वित्तीय लेनदेन करता है,
  • 6. जो एक प्रबंध-निदेशक, निदेशक, साझेदार, ट्रस्टी, लेखक, संस्थापक, हिन्दू-अविभाजित-परिवार का कर्ता, मुख्य कार्यकारी अधिकारी (C E O), प्रमुख अधिकारी (Principal Officer) या उपरोक्त क्रमांक (5) के द्वारा नियुक्त व्यक्ति हो.
  • 7. जो सीबीडीटी बोर्ड द्वारा प्रस्तावित लेनदेन करता हो.

पैन कार्ड लेने के लिए https://www.tin-nsdl.com/ पर जाकर ऑनलाइन आवेदन कर सकते हैं.

 

आयकर रिटर्न (Income Tax Return) -

  • आयकर चुकाने के लिए आयकर रिटर्न (Income Tax Return या ITR) फाइल की जाती है.  इसमें व्यक्तिगत करदाता, संयुक्त परिवार, कंपनियां, फर्म, संगठन, संस्था आदि शामिल हैं.  आयकर चुकाने वाले इन सभी पक्षों से उनकी आमदनी के हिसाब से अलग-अलग आयकर वसूला जाता है, जिसकी जानकारी इसी पृष्ठ पर नीचे दी गई है.
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  • आयकर रिटर्न के प्रकार (Types of Income Tax Return forms)-

  • 1. ITR-1 (सहज) - भारत में निवासित व्यक्ति की कुल आय रू.50 लाख से कम हो और आय का स्त्रोत वेतन/पेंशन, एक मकान और/या ब्याज से हो.
  • 2. ITR-2 - व्यक्ति या HUF, जिनकी आय कारोबार/व्यवसाय से नहीं हो, NRI और/या रु.5000 से अधिक कृषि से आय हो.
  • 3. ITR-3 - व्यक्ति या HUF, जिनकी आय कारोबार/व्यवसाय से हो और जो ITR-1 व ITR-2 फाइल नहीं कर सकते हों.
  • 4. ITR-4 (सुगम) - निवासी व्यक्ति, HUF व फर्म (LLP के अलावा), जिनकी आय प्रिसम्प्टीव (Presumptive) कारोबार/व्यवसाय से रू.50 लाख तक हो और जिनकी आय की गणना धारा 44AD, 44ADA या 44AE से हो या प्रोफेशनल व्यवसाय से आय रु.50 लाख तक हो या अन्य कारोबार से आय रु.2 करोड़ तक हो.
  • 5. ITR-5 - साझेदारी फर्म व LLP साझेदारी फर्म.
  • 6. ITR-6 - धारा 11 के तहत कर-मुक्ति का लाभ लेने वाली कंपनियों के अलावा प्राइवेट और पब्लिक लिमिटेड कंपनियां.
  • 7. ITR-7 - कंपनियां व जिन्हें धारा 139(4A) या 139(4B) या 139(4C) या 139(4D) लागू हो, प्राइवेट और पब्लिक ट्रस्ट, राजनीतिक पार्टी, शिक्षण संस्थान, व्यावसायिक ट्रस्ट व निवेशक निधि (Investment Fund).
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  • आयकर रिटर्न के फाइल करने के लाभ (Benefits of filing Income Tax Returns)-

  • आयकर रिटर्न फाइल करने के लाभ निम्न प्रकार है -
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  • 1. यदि पहले आपने अपना आयकर रिटर्न दाखिल किया है और वित्त वर्ष 2019-20 के दौरान आपकी आय रु.2,50,000 / - की मूल छूट सीमा से अधिक है, तो आपको दंड से बचने के लिए 30.11.2020 तक आईटीआर दाखिल करना होगा, इस तिथि के बाद रु. 5000 का जुर्माना 31.12.2020 तक और उसके बाद रु.10,000 रुपये का जुर्माना लगता है। 
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  • 2. यदि आप किसी भी बैंक से कर्ज/ऋण के लिए आवेदन करना चाहते हैं, जैसे व्यक्तिगत ऋण, गृह ऋण, शिक्षा ऋण या व्यवसाय ऋण; तब बैंक आपको पिछले 3 वित्तीय वर्षों के लिए अपने आयकर रिटर्न प्रस्तुत करने के लिए कहते हैं।

3. यदि आप किसी भी जीवन बीमा कंपनी के टर्म इंश्योरेंस प्लान के लिए आवेदन करना चाहते हैं, तो वे आपको अपना आयकर रिटर्न प्रस्तुत करने के लिए भी कहते हैं।

4. यदि आप किसी भी बैंक के क्रेडिट कार्ड के लिए आवेदन करना चाहते हैं, तो बैंक आपसे अपना आयकर रिटर्न प्रस्तुत करने के लिए कहते हैं।

5. यदि आप कारोबारी/व्यवसायी हैं और पिछले वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20 के दौरान नुकसान हुआ है, तो आपको अपने नुकसान को अगले वित्तीय वर्ष में ले जाने के लिए आईटीआर फाइल करने की तय तारीख तक दाखिल करने की आवश्यकता है (विलम्ब से रिटर्न फाइल करने पर यह नुकसान अगले वित्तीय वर्ष में नहीं ले जाया जा सकता), और ऐसे कारोबार/व्यवसाय के नुकसान को अगले 8 वित्तीय वर्षों तक ले जाया जा सकता है।

6. यदि आप विदेश जाने के लिए वीजा के लिए आवेदन कर रहे हैं, तो दूतावास आपको अपना आयकर रिटर्न जमा करने के लिए कहते हैं, जो उन्हें यह सुनिश्चित करने में मदद करता है कि आप अपनी विदेश यात्रा के दौरान आपके द्वारा किए गए खर्चों का ध्यान रखने में सक्षम हैं।

7. यदि आप भारत से बाहर स्थित किसी संपत्ति के मालिक हैं या विदेश में किसी भी इकाई में आपकी कोई वित्तीय रुचि है, या आप विदेश में किसी भी खाते में हस्ताक्षर करने वाले प्राधिकारी हैं या आप इनमें से किसी एक में लाभार्थी हैं, तो आपको अपना आईटीआर दाखिल करना आवश्यक है, भले ही पिछले वित्त वर्ष की आपकी आय रु. 2,50,000 की छूट सीमा से कम है।

8. यदि आपकी आय रु.2,50,000 की छूट सीमा से कम है और किसी ने टीडीएस काट लिया है, तो आपको ऐसे टीडीएस की वापसी/रिफंड का दावा करने के लिए अपना आईटीआर दाखिल करना आवश्यक है। उदाहरण के लिए, वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20 के दौरान, किसी व्यक्ति की कुल आय रु 2,40,000 है, लेकिन उसकी एक बैंक के साथ सावधि जमा कराई हुई है और बैंक ने ब्याज की आय पर बतौर टीडीएस के रु.6,200 की कटौती की है, तो फिर व्यक्ति को रु.6,200 वापसी/रिफंड का दावा करने के लिए आईटीआर दाखिल करना आवश्यक है अन्यथा उसे आयकर विभाग से कोई रिफंड नहीं मिलेगा।

9. यदि दुर्भाग्यवश किसी व्यक्ति के साथ कोई दुर्घटना हो जाए तो बीमा कंपनी मुआवजे के दावे का निपटान करने से पहले उस व्यक्ति का ITR मांगती है।

10. अंततः, एक कानून का पालन करने वाला नागरिक होने के नाते, आपको अपना आईटीआर दाखिल करना चाहिए।

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  • आयकर बचत के उपाय (Income Tax Saving Options) -

  • व्यक्ति, जिसे आयकर रिटर्न ITR-1, ITR-2, ITR-3 या ITR-4 फाइल करना होता है, वह अपना आयकर बचाने के लिए निम्नलिखित उपाय काम में ले सकते हैं -
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  • 1. धारा 24(b) के तहत रू.2 लाख तक मकान/फ्लैट के कर्ज (Home Loan) पर अदा किए गए ब्याज पर आयकर नहीं लगता है,
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  • 2. वेतनिक कर्मचारी को मानक कटोती (Standard Deduction) के रूप में रू.50,000,
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  • 3. यदि वेतनिक कर्मचारी जो किराए के मकान/फ्लैट में रह रहा हो तो उसे धारा 10(13A) के तहत नियोक्ता से मकान-किराया भत्ता (HRA) पर निम्न क, ख या ग में से जो सबसे कम हो, छूट प्राप्त हो सकती है -
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  • => = वास्तविक मकान-किराया भत्ता,
  • => = यदि मेट्रो शहर में रहता हो तो 50%, अन्य शहर में 40%,
  • => = वास्तविक किराया दिया (-) वार्षिक वेतन का 10%,
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  • 4. राज्य सरकार द्वारा वसूला गया वास्तविक व्यवसाय-कर.
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  • 5. सेवानिवृति के समय मिलने वाले लाभ, जैसे, जमा छुट्टियों के बदले रूपये (Leave Encashment) {गैर सरकारी कर्मचारी को रू.3 लाख तक}, ग्रेच्युटी, एक-मुश्त-पेंशन (Commutation of Pension).
  • 6. धारा 80C के तहत, निम्न योजनाओं में निवेश करने पर रू. 1.5 लाख तक छूट प्राप्त होती है -
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  • => जीवन बीमा के प्रीमियम,
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  • => पेंशन फण्ड योजना,
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  • => किसी स्कूल/कॉलेज/विश्व-विद्यालय को भुगतान की गई ट्यूशन फीस,
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  • => किसी म्यूच्यूअल फण्ड  द्वारा जारी इक्विटी लिंक्ड सेविंग स्कीम (ELSS),
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  • => पोस्ट ऑफिस द्वारा जारी राष्ट्रीय बचत प्रमाण-पत्र (National Savings Certificate),   
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  • => भविष्य-निधि खाता (Provident Fund Account),

=> मकान/फ्लैट के लिए होम लोन में मूल रकम (Principal Amount) की अदा की गई राशि,

=> मकान/फ्लैट के नामांतरण के लिए रजिस्ट्रेशन फ़ीस व स्टाम्प ड्यूटीके भुगतान की राशि.

  • => 5 वर्षीय पोस्ट ऑफिस या बैंक में कर-मुक्त मियादी जमा (Fixed Deposit) {इसमें मिलने वाले ब्याज पर आयकर लगेगा},
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  • => धारा 80CCD के तहत धारा 80C की रू.1.5 लाख की कटोती के अलावा रू.50,000 तक राष्ट्रीय पेंशन योजना (National Pension Scheme) में निवेश करने पर छूट मिलेगी.
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  • उपरोक्त के अलावा निम्न योजनाओं में निवेश पर भी आयकर छूट मिलेगी -
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  • => धारा 80D - स्वास्थ्य-बीमा के प्रीमियम पर  कुल रू. 60,000 तक, जिसमे स्वयं या उसके परिवार के सदस्य को रू.25,000 तक व उनके माता-पिता पर रू.30,000 तक.
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  • => धारा 80DD - रू. 75,000 तक विकलांग आश्रित पर खर्च (For severe disabilities Rs.1,25,000),
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  • => धारा 80DDB - कुछ बीमारियों के इलाज के लिए -
  •       60 वर्ष की आयु तक रू. 40,000,
  •       60 से 80 वर्ष की आयु तक रू. 60,000,
  •       80 वर्ष से अधिक की आयु तक रू. 80,000,
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  • => धारा 80E - शिक्षा-कर्ज के ब्याज का भुगतान,
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  • => धारा 80EE - पहली बार गृह-कर्ज (Home Loan) पर रू. 50,000,
  •  
  • => धारा 80G - धर्मार्थ-ट्रस्ट (Charitable Trust) को अनुदान देने का 50% या 100%, जैसा लागू हो.
  •  
  • => धारा 80GG - कर्मचारी जिन्हें मकान-किराया भत्ता (HRA) नहीं मिलता उन्हें निम्न में से जो कम हो -
  •       क = कुल आय का 25%,
  •       ख = रू. 5,000 प्रति माह,
  •       ग = वास्तविक किराया दिया (-) वार्षिक वेतन का 10%.
  •  
  • => धारा 80GGB व 80GGC - राजनैतिक पार्टी को क्रमशः कम्पनीयों या व्यक्तियों द्वारा चेक से भुगतान किया हो,
  •  
  • => धारा 80TTA - रू.10,000 तक बचत खाते से प्राप्त ब्याज,

=> धारा 80TTB - रू.50,000 तक बचत खाते से प्राप्त ब्याज [ निवासी वरिष्ठ नागरिक {Resident Senior Citizen} ],

  • => धारा 80U - विकलांग करदाता रू.75,000 और यदि ज्यादा विकलांगता हो तो रू.1.25 लाख.
  •  
  • => धारा 80RRB - रू. 3 लाख तक रॉयल्टी या पेटेंट से आय

 

 

 

 

आयकर की दरें (Income Tax Rates) -

1. व्यक्ति (Individuals - Resident & NRI) अथवा हिंदु अविभाजित परिवार (HUF) अथवा व्यक्तियों के संघ (AOP - Association of Persons) अथवा व्यक्तियों की निकाय (BOI - Body of Individuals) अथवा अन्य किसी कृत्रिम कानूनी व्यक्ति (Artificial Juridical Person) के लिए निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18), निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19), निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए आयकर की दरें :-

    करयोग्य आय                              दर
रू. 2,50,000 तक                         शून्य
रू. 2,50,000 से रू. 5,00,000          5%
रू. 5,00,000 से रू. 10,00,000       20%
रू. 10,00,000 से अधिक                  30%

घटाएं : धारा 87क के अंतर्गत छूट (टिप्पणी देखें)
जोड़ें  : अधिभार (Surcharge) तथा शिक्षा/स्वास्थ्य उपकर (Cess) के लिए टिप्पणी देखें.



2. निवासी वरिष्ठ नागरिक {Resident Senior Citizen} (जो पिछले वर्ष के दौरान किसी भी समय 60 वर्ष की आयु अथवा उससे अधिक का हो लेकिन पिछले वर्ष के अंतिम दिन पर 80 वर्ष की आयु से कम का हो) के लिए निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18), निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19), निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए आयकर की दरें  :-
   करयोग्य आय                                 दर
रू. 3,00,000 तक                            शून्य
रू. 3,00,000 से रू. 5,00,000            5%
रू. 5,00,000 से रू. 10,00,000         20%
रू. 10,00,000 से अधिक                    30%

घटाएं : धारा 87क के अंतर्गत छूट (टिप्पणी देखें)
जोड़ें  : अधिभार तथा शिक्षा/स्वास्थ्य उपकर (टिप्पणी देखें)


3. एक निवासी अति वरिष्ठ नागरिक (Resident Super Senior Citizen) की स्थिति में (जो पिछले वर्ष के दौरान किसी भी समय 80 वर्ष अथवा उससे अधिक की आयु का हो) के लिए निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18), निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19), निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए आयकर की दरें :-

    करयोग्य आय                                  दर
रू. 5,00,000 तक                             शून्य
रू. 5,00,000 से रू. 10,00,000          20%
रू. 10,00,000 से अधिक                     30%

जोड़ें  : अधिभार तथा शिक्षा उपकर (टिप्पणी देखें)

  • टिप्पणी :-
  • क) अधिभार (Surcharge)
  • निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18), निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19) के लिए -
  •      (i) 1 प्रतिशत की दर पर अधिभार लगेगा जहां कुल आय 50 लाख रूपए से अधिक हो लेकिन 1 करोड़ से कम हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगा (जहां कुल आय 50 लाख रूपए से
  •           अधिक हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो 50 लाख रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा 50 लाख की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि
  •           से अधिक नही होगी)
  •     (ii) 15 प्रतिशत की दर पर अधिभार लगेगा जहां कुल आय 1 करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगी (जहां कुल आय 1 करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर
  •          और अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो 1 करोड़ से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा 1 करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि से अधिक नहीं होगी।
  •  
  • निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए -
  •       (i) आयकर की राशि ऐसे कर के 10% की दर पर अधिभार द्वारा बढ़ाई जाएगी जहां कुल आय पचास लाख रूपए से अधिक हो लेकिन एक करोड़ से अधिक न हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगी (जहां कुल आय पचास लाख रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि और अधिभार आय, जो पचास लाख रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि की तुलना में पचास लाख की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि से अधिक नहीं होगी)
  •      (ii) आयकर की राशि ऐसे कर के 15% की दर पर अधिभार द्वारा बढ़ाई जाएगी जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो लेकिन दो करोड़ से अधिक न हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगा (जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा एक करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि से अधिक नही होगी)
  •     (iii) आयकर की राशि ऐसे कर के 25% की दर पर अधिभार द्वारा बढ़ाई जाएगी जहां कुल आय दो करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो लेकिन पांच करोड़ से अधिक न हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगा (जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा एक करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि से अधिक नही होगी)
  •     (iv) आयकर की राशि ऐसे कर के 37% की दर पर अधिभार द्वारा बढ़ाई जाएगी जहां कुल आय पांच करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगा (जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा एक करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि से अधिक नही होगी)
  •  
  • However, marginal relief is available from surcharge in following manner- 
  1. in case where net income exceeds Rs. 50 lakh but doesn’t exceed Rs. 1 Crore, the amount payable as income tax and surcharge shall not exceed the total amount payable as income tax on total income of Rs 50 Lakh by more than the amount of income that exceeds Rs 50 Lakhs.
  2. in case where net income exceeds Rs. 1 crore but doesn’t exceed Rs. 2 crore, marginal relief shall be available from surcharge in such a manner that the amount payable as income tax and surcharge shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on total income of Rs. 1 crore by more than the amount of income that exceeds Rs. 1 crore.
  3. in case where net income exceeds Rs. 2 crore but doesn’t exceed Rs. 5 crore, marginal relief shall be available from surcharge in such a manner that the amount payable as income tax and surcharge shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on total income of Rs. 2 crore by more than the amount of income that exceeds Rs. 2 crore.
  4. in case where net income exceeds Rs. 5 crore, marginal relief shall be available from surcharge in such a manner that the amount payable as income tax and surcharge shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on total income of Rs. 5 crore by more than the amount of income that exceeds Rs. 5 crore.

  • ख) शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) के लिए आयकर तथा अधिभार की राशि पर 2% की दर से लगेगा।

ग) माध्यमिक तथा उच्च शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) के लिए आयकर तथा अधिभार की राशि पर 1% की दर पर लगेगा।
घ) स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19), निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए आयकर की राशि और अधिभार पर 4% की दर पर लगेगा।

ड.) धारा 87क के अंतर्गत छूट : 
(i) निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19) के लिए छूट निवासी व्यक्ति को उपलब्ध होगी यदि उसकी कुल आय रू.3,50,000 से अधिक न हो। छूट की राशि आयकर का 100 प्रतिशत अथवा 2,500 जो भी कम हो, होगी.
(ii) निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए छूट निवासी व्यक्ति को उपलब्ध होगी यदि उसकी कुल आय रू. 5,00,000 से अधिक न हो। छूट की राशि आयकर का 100 प्रतिशत अथवा 12,500 जो भी कम हो, होगी।

(iii) For new tax regime - निर्धारण वर्ष 2024-25 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2023-24) के लिए 25,000 तक की छूट निवासी व्यक्ति को उपलब्ध होगी यदि उसकी कुल आय रू. 7,00,000 से अधिक न हो (छूट की राशि आयकर का 100 प्रतिशत अथवा 25,000 जो भी कम हो)

  •  
  • For new tax regime - व्यक्ति (निवासी अथवा अनिवासी) व हिंदु अविभाजित परिवार (HUF) के लिए निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) से लागू विशेष आयकर की दरें :-
                       कुल आय  दर
रु.2,50,000 तक शून्य
रु.2,50,001 से 5,00,000 तक 5%
रु.5,00,001 से 7,50,000 तक 10%
रु.7,50,001 से 10,00,000 तक 15%
रु.10,00,001 से 12,50,000 तक 20%
रु.12,50,001 से 15,00,000 तक  25%
रु.15,00,000 से अधिक  30%
  • नोट : अधिभार तथा शिक्षा उपकर के लिए उपरोक्त तालिका 1 की टिप्पणी देखें.

 

4. साझेदार फर्म (Partnership Firms) व स्थानीय प्राधिकारी (Local Authority) -
निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18), निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19), निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए एक साझेदार फर्म (एलएलपी सहित) 30% की दर से करयोग्य है।

जोड़ें :
क) अधिभार :
आयकर की राशि ऐसे कर के 12% की दर पर अधिभार द्वारा बढ़ाई जाएगी जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगा (जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा एक करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देय योग्य कुल राशि से अधिक नही होगी)।

ख) शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) के लिए आयकर तथा अधिभार की राशि पर 2% की दर से लगेगा।

ग) माध्यमिक तथा उच्च शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) के लिए आयकर तथा अधिभार की राशि पर 1% की दर पर लगेगा।

घ) स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19), निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए आयकर की राशि और अधिभार पर 4% की दर पर लगेगा।

 

5. घरेलू कंपनी के लिए कॉर्पोरेट कर की दर (Corporate Tax rates for Domestic Company) :-

निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) के लिए, एक घरेलू कंपनी 30% पर कर योग्य है। हालांकि, कर की दर 25% रहेगी जहां कंपनी का कारोबार या कुल प्राप्तियां पिछले वर्ष 2015-16 में रू.50 करोड़ से अधिक नहीं होती।

निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19) के लिए, एक घरेलू कंपनी 30% पर कर योग्य है। हालांकि, कर की दर 25% रहेगी जहां कंपनी का कारोबार या कुल प्राप्तियां पिछले वर्ष 2016-17 में रू.250 करोड़ से अधिक नहीं होती।

निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए, एक घरेलू कंपनी 30% पर कर योग्य है। हालांकि, कर की दर 25% रहेगी जहां कंपनी का कारोबार या कुल प्राप्तियां पिछले वर्ष 2017-18 / 2018-19 में रू.400 करोड़ से अधिक नहीं होती।

जोड़ें:
क) अधिभार :
आयकर की राशि ऐसे कर के 7% की दर पर अधिभार द्वारा बढ़ाई जाएगी जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो लेकिन दस करोड़ से अधिक न हो तथा ऐसे कर के 12 प्रतिशत की दर पर जहां कुल आय दस करोड़ से अधिक हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगा जो निम्नानुसार होगा।
     (i) जहां आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक लेकिन दस करोड़ से कम हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा एक करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल आय से अधिक नही होगी।
    (ii) जहां आय दस करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा एक करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल आय से अधिक नही होगी।

ख) शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) के लिए आयकर तथा प्रयोज्नीय अधिभार की राशि ऐसे आयकर व अधिभार के 2% की दर पर वृद्धि की जाएगी।

ग) माध्यमिक तथा उच्च शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) के लिए आयकर तथा प्रयोज्नीय अधिभार की राशि ऐसे आयकर तथा अधिभार के 1% की दर पर वृद्धि की जाएगी।

घ) स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा उपकर : निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) के लिए आयकर की राशि और प्रयोज्य अधिभार को ऐसी आय और अधिभार के 4% की दर पर आंके गए स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा उपकर द्वारा और बढ़ाया जाएगा।

घरेलू कंपनी के लिए विशेष कॉर्पोरेट कर की दर :-

निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए 

  • 1. धारा 115BA   का विकल्प लेने वाली कंपनी के लिए कॉर्पोरेट कर की दर 25%
  • 2. धारा 115BAA का विकल्प लेने वाली कंपनी के लिए कॉर्पोरेट कर की दर 22% 
  • 3. धारा 115BAB का विकल्प लेने वाली कंपनी के लिए कॉर्पोरेट कर की दर 15%
     

6. विदेशी कंपनी के लिए आयकर की दरें (Income Tax rates for Foreign Company)

निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) तथा निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19), निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए 

31 मार्च 1961 के पश्चात् लेकिन 1 अप्रैल, 1976 से पूर्व भारतीय कंपनी के साथ किए गए समझौते के अनुसार सरकार अथवा भारतीय कंपनी द्वारा प्राप्त रॉयल्टी अथवा 29 फरवरी, 1964 के पश्चात् लेकिन 1 अप्रैल, 1976 से पूर्व किए गए समझौते के अनुसार तकनीकी सेवा प्रतिपादन के लिए शुल्क तथा जहां ऐसा समझौता किसी भी स्थिति में, केंद्र सरकार द्वारा अनुमोदित किया गया हो  :  50 प्रतिशत

अन्य कोई आय 40 प्रतिशत

जोड़ें :
क) अधिभार :
आयकर की राशि ऐसे कर के 2% की दर पर अधिभार लगेगा जहां कुल आय 1 करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो लेकिन 10 करोड़ से अधिक न हो तथा ऐसे कर के 5% की दर पर जहां कुल आय 10 करोड़ से अधिक हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगा जो निम्नानुसार होगा:
     (i) जहां आय 1 करोड़ रूपए से अधिक लेकिन 10 करोड़ रूपए से अधिक न हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो 1 करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा 1 करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल आय से अधिक नही होगी।
    (ii) जहां आय 10 करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो 10 करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा 10 करोड़ रूपए की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल आय से अधिक नही होगी।

निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18)
ख) शिक्षा उपकर : आयकर तथा प्रयोज्नीय अधिभार की राशि ऐसे आयकर तथा अधिभार के 2% की दर से लगेगा।
ग) माध्यमिक तथा उच्च शिक्षा उपकर : आयकर तथा प्रयोज्नीय अधिभार की राशि ऐसे आयकर तथा अधिभार के 1% की दर से लगेगा।

निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19) के लिए
स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा उपकर : आयकर की राशि और लागू होने वाला अधिभार को ऐसे आयकर और अधिभार के 4% की दर पर आंके गए स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा उपकर द्वारा आगे बढ़ाया जाएगा।



7. सहकारी संस्था के लिए आयकर की दरें (Income Tax rates for Co-operative Society) :-
निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) तथा निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19), निर्धारण वर्ष 2020-21 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2019-20) व निर्धारण वर्ष 2021-22 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2020-21) के लिए 

      करयोग्य आय                                      दर
रू. 10,000 तक                                       10%
रू. 10,000 से रू. 20,000                         20%
रू. 20,000 से अधिक                                 30%

जोड़ें :
क) अधिभार :
आयकर की राशि ऐसे कर के 12% की दर पर अधिभार द्वारा बढ़ाई जाएगी जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो। हालांकि, अधिभार सीमांत राहत के अनुसार होगा (जहां कुल आय एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो वहां आयकर तथा अधिभार के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि आय, जो एक करोड़ रूपए से अधिक हो, की राशि के अलावा एक करोड़ की कुल आय पर आयकर के रूप में देययोग्य कुल राशि से अधिक नही होगी)

निर्धारण वर्ष 2018-19 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2017-18) के लिए
ख) शिक्षा उपकर : आयकर तथा प्रयोज्नीय अधिभार की राशि ऐसे आयकर तथा अधिभार के 2% की दर पर आंके गए शिक्षा उपकर द्वारा आगामी वृद्धि की जाएगी।

ग) माध्यमिक तथा उच्च शिक्षा उपकर : आयकर तथा प्रयोज्नीय अधिभार की राशि ऐसे आयकर तथा अधिभार के 1% की दर पर आंके गए माध्यमिक तथा उच्च शिक्षा उपकर द्वारा आगामी वृद्धि की जाएगी।

निर्धारण वर्ष 2019-20 (वित्तीय वर्ष 2018-19) के लिए
स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा उपकर : आयकर की राशि और लागू होने वाला अधिभार को ऐसे आयकर और अधिभार के 4% की दर पर आंके गए स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा उपकर द्वारा आगे बढ़ाया जाएगा।

 

Provisions related to Income Tax Accounts & Audit for business or profession :- 

Section 44AA : Maintenance of accounts by certain persons carrying on business or profession -

(1) Every person carrying on legal, medical, engineering or architectural profession or the profession of accountancy or technical consultancy or interior decoration or any other profession as is notified by the Board in the Official Gazette shall keep and maintain such books of account and other documents as may enable the Assessing Officer to compute his total income in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

(2) Every person carrying on business or profession [not being a profession referred to in sub-section (1)] shall,—

(i) if his income from business or profession exceeds one lakh twenty thousand rupees or his total sales, turnover or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business or profession exceed or exceeds ten lakh rupees in any one of the three years immediately preceding the previous year; or

(ii) where the business or profession is newly set up in any previous year, if his income from business or profession is likely to exceed one lakh twenty thousand rupees or his total sales, turnover or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business or profession are or is likely to exceed ten lakh rupees, during such previous year; or

(iii) where the profits and gains from the business are deemed to be the profits and gains of the assessee under section 44AE or section 44BB or section 44BBB, as the case may be, and the assessee has claimed his income to be lower than the profits or gains so deemed to be the profits and gains of his business, as the case may be, during such previous year; or

(iv) where the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 44AD are applicable in his case and his income exceeds the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income-tax in any previous year,

keep and maintain such books of account and other documents as may enable the Assessing Officer to compute his total income in accordance with the provisions of this Act:

Provided that in the case of a person being an individual or a Hindu undivided family, the provisions of clause (i) and clause (ii) shall have effect, as if for the words "one lakh twenty thousand rupees", the words "two lakh fifty thousand rupees" had been substituted :

Provided further that in the case of a person being an individual or a Hindu undivided family, the provisions of clause (i) and clause (ii) shall have effect, as if for the words "ten lakh rupees", the words "twenty-five lakh rupees" had been substituted.

(3) The Board may, having regard to the nature of the business or profession carried on by any class of persons, prescribe71, by rules, the books of account and other documents (including inventories, wherever necessary) to be kept and maintained under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), the particulars to be contained therein and the form and the manner in which and the place at which they shall be kept and maintained.

(4) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (3), the Board may prescribe, by rules, the period for which the books of account and other documents to be kept and maintained under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall be retained.

 

 

Audit of accounts of certain persons carrying on business or profession - 

Section 44AB. Every person,—

(a) carrying on business shall, if his total sales, turnover or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business exceed or exceeds one crore rupees in any previous year :

Provided that in the case of a person whose—

(a) aggregate of all amounts received including amount received for sales, turnover or gross receipts during the previous year, in cash, does not exceed five per cent of the said amount; and

(b) aggregate of all payments made including amount incurred for expenditure, in cash, during the previous year does not exceed five per cent of the said payment,

this clause shall have effect as if for the words "one crore rupees", the words "ten crore rupees" had been substituted:

Provided further that for the purposes of this clause, the payment or receipt, as the case may be, by a cheque drawn on a bank or by a bank draft, which is not account payee, shall be deemed to be the payment or receipt, as the case may be, in cash; or

(b) carrying on profession shall, if his gross receipts in profession exceed fifty lakh rupees in any previous year; or

(c) carrying on the business shall, if the profits and gains from the business are deemed to be the profits and gains of such person under section 44AE or section 44BB or section 44BBB, as the case may be, and he has claimed his income to be lower than the profits or gains so deemed to be the profits and gains of his business, as the case may be, in any previous year; or

(d) carrying on the profession shall, if the profits and gains from the profession are deemed to be the profits and gains of such person under section 44ADA and he has claimed such income to be lower than the profits and gains so deemed to be the profits and gains of his profession and his income exceeds the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income-tax in any previous year; or

(e) carrying on the business shall, if the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 44AD are applicable in his case and his income exceeds the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income-tax in any previous year,

get his accounts of such previous year audited by an accountant before the specified date and furnish by that date the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant and setting forth such particulars as may be prescribed :

Provided that this section shall not apply to the person, who declares profits and gains for the previous year in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 44AD and his total sales, turnover or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business does not exceed two crore rupees in such previous year:

 

Following first proviso shall be substituted for the existing first proviso to section 44AB by the Finance Act, 2023, w.e.f. 1-4-2024:

Provided that this section shall not apply to a person, who declares profits and gains for the previous year in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 44AD or sub-section (1) of section 44ADA:

Provided further that this section shall not apply to the person, who derives income of the nature referred to in section 44B or section 44BBA, on and from the 1st day of April, 1985 or, as the case may be, the date on which the relevant section came into force, whichever is later :

Provided also that in a case where such person is required by or under any other law to get his accounts audited, it shall be sufficient compliance with the provisions of this section if such person gets the accounts of such business or profession audited under such law before the specified date and furnishes by that date the report of the audit as required under such other law and a further report by an accountant in the form prescribed under this section.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

(i) "accountant" shall have the same meaning as in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288;

(ii) "specified date", in relation to the accounts of the assessee of the previous year relevant to an assessment year, means date one month prior to the due date for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139.


 

  • Section - 44AC

    Special provision for computing profits and gains from the business of trading in certain goods Omitted by the Finance Act, 1992, w.e.f. 1-4-1993

  • Section - 44AD

    Special provision for computing profits and gains of business on presumptive basis.

    44AD. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43C, in the case of an eligible assessee engaged in an eligible business, a sum equal to eight per cent of the total turnover or gross receipts of the assessee in the previous year on account of such business or, as the case may be, a sum higher than the aforesaid sum claimed to have been earned by the eligible assessee, shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession" :

    Provided that this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words "eight per cent", the words "six per cent" had been substituted, in respect of the amount of total turnover or gross receipts which is received by an account payee cheque or an account payee bank draft or use of electronic clearing system through a bank account or through such other electronic mode as may be prescribed75 during the previous year or before the due date specified in sub-section (1) of section 139 in respect of that previous year.

    (2) Any deduction allowable under the provisions of sections 30 to 38 shall, for the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to have been already given full effect to and no further deduction under those sections shall be allowed.

    (3) The written down value of any asset of an eligible business shall be deemed to have been calculated as if the eligible assessee had claimed and had been actually allowed the deduction in respect of the depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

    (4) Where an eligible assessee declares profit for any previous year in accordance with the provisions of this section and he declares profit for any of the five assessment years relevant to the previous year succeeding such previous year not in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1), he shall not be eligible to claim the benefit of the provisions of this section for five assessment years subsequent to the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the profit has not been declared in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1).

    (5) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, an eligible assessee to whom the provisions of sub-section (4) are applicable and whose total income exceeds the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income-tax, shall be required to keep and maintain such books of account and other documents as required under sub-section (2) of section 44AA and get them audited and furnish a report of such audit as required under section 44AB.

    (6) The provisions of this section, notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions, shall not apply to—

    (i) a person carrying on profession as referred to in sub-section (1) of section 44AA;

    (ii) a person earning income in the nature of commission or brokerage; or

    (iii) a person carrying on any agency business.

    Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

    (a) "eligible assessee" means,—

    (i) an individual, Hindu undivided family or a partnership firm, who is a resident, but not a limited liability partnership firm as defined under clause (n) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 (6 of 2009); and

    (ii) who has not claimed deduction under any of the sections 10A10AA10B10BA or deduction under any provisions of Chapter VIA under the heading "C.—Deductions in respect of certain incomes" in the relevant assessment year;

    (b) "eligible business" means,—

    (i) any business except the business of plying, hiring or leasing goods carriages referred to in section 44AE; and

    (ii) whose total turnover or gross receipts in the previous year does not exceed an amount of two crore rupees.

    Following provisos shall be inserted after sub-clause (ii) of clause (b) of Explanation to section 44AD by the Finance Act, 2023, w.e.f. 1-4-2024:

    Provided that where the amount or aggregate of the amounts received during the previous year, in cash, does not exceed five per cent of the total turnover or gross receipts of such previous year, this sub-clause shall have effect as if for the words "two crore rupees", the words "three crore rupees" had been substituted:

    Provided further that for the purposes of the first proviso, the receipt of amount or aggregate of amounts by a cheque drawn on a bank or by a bank draft, which is not account payee, shall be deemed to be the receipt in cash.

  • Section - 44ADA   Special provision for computing profits and gains of profession on presumptive basis.

    44ADA. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in sections 28 to 43C76[in case of an assessee, being an individual or a partnership firm other than a limited liability partnership as defined under clause (n) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 (6 of 2009), who is a resident in India, and] is engaged in a profession referred to in sub-section (1) of section 44AA and whose total gross receipts do not exceed fifty lakh rupees in a previous year, a sum equal to fifty per cent of the total gross receipts of the assessee in the previous year on account of such profession or, as the case may be, a sum higher than the aforesaid sum claimed to have been earned by the assessee, shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such profession chargeable to tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession".

    Following provisos shall be inserted after sub-section (1) of section 44ADA by the Finance Act, 2023, w.e.f. 1-4-2024:

    Provided that in case of an assessee where the amount or aggregate of the amounts received during the previous year, in cash, does not exceed five per cent of the total gross receipts of such previous year, this sub-section shall have effect as if for the words "fifty lakh rupees", the words "seventy-five lakh rupees" had been substituted:

    Provided further that for the purposes of the first proviso, the receipt of amount or aggregate of amounts by a cheque drawn on a bank or by a bank draft, which is not account payee, shall be deemed to be the receipt in cash.

    (2) Any deduction allowable under the provisions of sections 30 to 38 shall, for the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to have been already given full effect to and no further deduction under those sections shall be allowed.

    (3) The written down value of any asset used for the purposes of profession shall be deemed to have been calculated as if the assessee had claimed and had been actually allowed the deduction in respect of the depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

    (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, an assessee who claims that his profits and gains from the profession are lower than the profits and gains specified in sub-section (1) and whose total income exceeds the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income-tax, shall be required to keep and maintain such books of account and other documents as required under sub-section (1) of section 44AA and get them audited and furnish a report of such audit as required under section 44AB.

     

  •  

  • Section - 44AE 

    Special provision for computing profits and gains of business of plying, hiring or leasing goods carriages.

    44AE. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43C, in the case of an assessee, who owns not more than ten goods carriages at any time during the previous year and who is engaged in the business of plying, hiring or leasing such goods carriages, the income of such business chargeable to tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession" shall be deemed to be the aggregate of the profits and gains, from all the goods carriages owned by him in the previous year, computed in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2).

    (2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the profits and gains from each goods carriage,—

    (i) being a heavy goods vehicle, shall be an amount equal to one thousand rupees per ton of gross vehicle weight or unladen weight, as the case may be, for every month or part of a month during which the heavy goods vehicle is owned by the assessee in the previous year or an amount claimed to have been actually earned from such vehicle, whichever is higher;

    (ii) other than heavy goods vehicle, shall be an amount equal to seven thousand five hundred rupees for every month or part of a month during which the goods carriage is owned by the assessee in the previous year or an amount claimed to have been actually earned from such goods carriage, whichever is higher.

    (3) Any deduction allowable under the provisions of sections 30 to 38 shall, for the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to have been already given full effect to and no further deduction under those sections shall be allowed :

    Provided that where the assessee is a firm, the salary and interest paid to its partners shall be deducted from the income computed under sub-section (1) subject to the conditions and limits specified in clause (b) of section 40.

    (4) The written down value of any asset used for the purpose of the business referred to in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to have been calculated as if the assessee had claimed and had been actually allowed the deduction in respect of the depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

    (5) The provisions of sections 44AA and 44AB shall not apply in so far as they relate to the business referred to in sub-section (1) and in computing the monetary limits under those sections, the gross receipts or, as the case may be, the income from the said business shall be excluded.

    (6) Nothing contained in the foregoing provisions of this section shall apply, where the assessee claims and produces evidence to prove that the profits and gains from the aforesaid business during the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1997 or any earlier assessment year, are lower than the profits and gains specified in sub-sections (1) and (2), and thereupon the Assessing Officer shall proceed to make an assessment of the total income or loss of the assessee and determine the sum payable by the assessee on the basis of assessment made under sub-section (3) of section 143.

    (7) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, an assessee may claim lower profits and gains than the profits and gains specified in sub-sections (1) and (2), if he keeps and maintains such books of account and other documents as required under sub-section (2) of section 44AA and gets his accounts audited and furnishes a report of such audit as required under section 44AB.

    Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

    (a) the expressions "goods carriage", "gross vehicle weight" and "unladen weight" shall have the respective meanings assigned to them in section 2 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988);

    (aa) the expression "heavy goods vehicle" means any goods carriage, the gross vehicle weight of which exceeds 12000 kilograms;

    (b) an assessee, who is in possession of a goods carriage, whether taken on hire purchase or on instalments and for which the whole or part of the amount payable is still due, shall be deemed to be the owner of such goods carriage.

     

  • Section - 44AF

     

    Special provisions for computing profits and gains of retail business.

    44AF. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43C, in the case of an assessee engaged in retail trade in any goods or merchandise, a sum equal to five per cent of the total turnover in the previous year on account of such business or, as the case may be, a sum higher than the aforesaid sum as declared by the assessee in his return of income shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession" :

    Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply in respect of an assessee whose total turnover exceeds an amount of forty lakh rupees in the previous year.

    (2) Any deduction allowable under the provisions of sections 30 to 38 shall, for the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to have been already given full effect to and no further deduction under those sections shall be allowed :

    Provided that where the assessee is a firm, the salary and interest paid to its partners shall be deducted from the income computed under sub-section (1) subject to the conditions and limits specified in clause (b) of section 40.

    (3) The written down value of any asset used for the purpose of the business referred to in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to have been calculated as if the assessee had claimed and had been actually allowed the deduction in respect of the depreciation for each of the relevant assessment years.

    (4) The provisions of sections 44AA and 44AB shall not apply in so far as they relate to the business referred to in sub-section (1) and in computing the monetary limits under those sections, the total turnover or, as the case may be, the income from the said business shall be excluded.

    (5) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, an assessee may claim lower profits and gains than the profits and gains specified in sub-section (1), if he keeps and maintains such books of account and other documents as required under sub-section (2) of section 44AA and gets his accounts audited and furnishes a report of such audit as required under section 44AB.

    (6) Nothing contained in this section shall apply to any assessment year beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2011.

  • Section - 44B

     

    Special provision for computing profits and gains of shipping business in the case of non-residents.

    44B. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43A, in the case of an assessee, being a non-resident, engaged in the business of operation of ships, a sum equal to seven and a half per cent of the aggregate of the amounts specified in sub-section (2) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession".

    (2) The amounts referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :—

    (i) the amount paid or payable (whether in or out of India) to the assessee or to any person on his behalf on account of the carriage of passengers, livestock, mail or goods shipped at any port in India; and

    (ii) the amount received or deemed to be received in India by or on behalf of the assessee on account of the carriage of passengers, livestock, mail or goods shipped at any port outside India.

    Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section, the amount referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) shall include the amount paid or payable or received or deemed to be received, as the case may be, by way of demurrage charges or handling charges or any other amount of similar nature.

  •  

  • Section - 44BB

     

    Special provision for computing profits and gains in connection with the business of exploration, etc., of mineral oils.

    44BB. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 41 and sections 43 and 43A, in the case of an assessee , being a non-resident, engaged in the business of providing services or facilities in connection with, or supplying plant and machinery on hire used, or to be used, in the prospecting for, or extraction or production of, mineral oils, a sum equal to ten per cent of the aggregate of the amounts specified in sub-section (2) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession" :

    Provided that this sub-section shall not apply in a case where the provisions of section 42 or section 44D or section 44DA or section 115A or section 293A apply for the purposes of computing profits or gains or any other income referred to in those sections.

    (2) The amounts referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :—

    (a) the amount paid or payable (whether in or out of India) to the assessee or to any person on his behalf on account of the provision of services and facilities in connection with, or supply of plant and machinery on hire used, or to be used, in the prospecting for, or extraction or production of, mineral oils in India; and

    (b) the amount received or deemed to be received in India by or on behalf of the assessee on account of the provision of services and facilities in connection with, or supply of plant and machinery on hire used, or to be used, in the prospecting for, or extraction or production of, mineral oils outside India.

    (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), an assessee may claim lower profits and gains than the profits and gains specified in that sub-section, if he keeps and maintains such books of account and other documents as required under sub-section (2) of section 44AA and gets his accounts audited and furnishes a report of such audit as required under section 44AB, and thereupon the Assessing Officer shall proceed to make an assessment of the total income or loss of the assessee under sub-section (3) of section 143 and determine the sum payable by, or refundable to, the assessee.

    Following sub-section (4) shall be inserted after sub-section (3) of section 44BB by the Finance Act, 2023, w.e.f. 1-4-2024:

    (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2) of section 32 and sub-section (1) of section 72, where an assessee declares profits and gains of business for any previous year in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1), no set off of unabsorbed depreciation and brought forward loss shall be allowed to the assessee for such previous year.

    Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

    (i) "plant" includes ships, aircraft, vehicles, drilling units, scientific apparatus and equipment, used for the purposes of the said business;

    (ii) "mineral oil" includes petroleum and natural gas.

  • Section - 44BBA

     

    Special provision for computing profits and gains of the business of operation of aircraft in the case of non-residents.

    44BBA. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43A, in the case of an assessee, being a non-resident, engaged in the business of operation of aircraft, a sum equal to five per cent of the aggregate of the amounts specified in sub-section (2) shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession".

    (2) The amounts referred to in sub-section (1) shall be the following, namely :—

    (a) the amount paid or payable (whether in or out of India) to the assessee or to any person on his behalf on account of the carriage of passengers, livestock, mail or goods from any place in India; and

    (b) the amount received or deemed to be received in India by or on behalf of the assessee on account of the carriage of passengers, livestock, mail or goods from any place outside India.

  • Section - 44BBB

     

    Special provision for computing profits and gains of foreign companies engaged in the business of civil construction, etc., in certain turnkey power projects.

    44BBB. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 44AA, in the case of an assessee, being a foreign company, engaged in the business of civil construction or the business of erection of plant or machinery or testing or commissioning thereof, in connection with a turnkey power project approved by the Central Government in this behalf, a sum equal to ten per cent of the amount paid or payable (whether in or out of India) to the said assessee or to any person on his behalf on account of such civil construction, erection, testing or commissioning shall be deemed to be the profits and gains of such business chargeable to tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession".

    (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), an assessee may claim lower profits and gains than the profits and gains specified in that sub-section, if he keeps and maintains such books of account and other documents as required under sub-section (2) of section 44AA and gets his accounts audited and furnishes a report of such audit as required under section 44AB, and thereupon the Assessing Officer shall proceed to make an assessment of the total income or loss of the assessee under sub-section (3) of section 143 and determine the sum payable by, or refundable to, the assessee.

    Following sub-section (3) shall be inserted after sub-section (2) of section 44BBB by the Finance Act, 2023, w.e.f. 1-4-2024:

    (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2) of section 32 and sub-section (1) of section 72, where an assessee declares profits and gains of business for any previous year in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1), no set off of unabsorbed depreciation and brought forward loss shall be allowed to the assessee for such previous year.

  • Section - 44C

     

    Deduction of head office expenditure in the case of non-residents.

    44C. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 43A, in the case of an assessee, being a non-resident, no allowance shall be made, in computing the income chargeable under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession", in respect of so much of the expenditure in the nature of head office expenditure as is in excess of the amount computed as hereunder, namely:—

    (a) an amount equal to five per cent of the adjusted total income; or

    (b) [***]

    (c) the amount of so much of the expenditure in the nature of head office expenditure incurred by the assessee as is attributable to the business or profession of the assessee in India,

    whichever is the least :

    Provided that in a case where the adjusted total income of the assessee is a loss, the amount under clause (a) shall be computed at the rate of five per cent of the average adjusted total income of the assessee.

    Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

    (i) "adjusted total income" means the total income computed in accordance with the provisions of this Act, without giving effect to the allowance referred to in this section or in sub-section (2) of section 32 or the deduction referred to in section 32A or section 33 or section 33A or the first proviso to clause (ix) of sub-section (1) of section 36 or any loss carried forward under sub-section (1) of section 72 or sub-section (2) of section 73 or sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) of section 74 or sub-section (3) of section 74A or the deductions under Chapter VI-A;

    (ii) "average adjusted total income" means,—

    (a) in a case where the total income of the assessee is assessable for each of the three assessment years immediately preceding the relevant assessment year, one-third of the aggregate amount of the adjusted total income in respect of the previous years relevant to the aforesaid three assessment years;

    (b) in a case where the total income of the assessee is assessable only for two of the aforesaid three assessment years, one-half of the aggregate amount of the adjusted total income in respect of the previous years relevant to the aforesaid two assessment years;

    (c) in a case where the total income of the assessee is assessable only for one of the aforesaid three assessment years, the amount of the adjusted total income in respect of the previous year relevant to that assessment year;

    (iii) [***]

    (iv) "head office expenditure" means executive and general administration expenditure incurred by the assessee outside India, including expenditure incurred in respect of—

    (a) rent, rates, taxes, repairs or insurance of any premises outside India used for the purposes of the business or profession;

    (b) salary, wages, annuity, pension, fees, bonus, commission, gratuity, perquisites or profits in lieu of or in addition to salary, whether paid or allowed to any employee or other person employed in, or managing the affairs of, any office outside India;

    (c) travelling by any employee or other person employed in, or managing the affairs of, any office outside India; and

    (d) such other matters connected with executive and general administration as may be prescribed.

  • Section - 44D

     

    Special provisions for computing income by way of royalties, etc., in the case of foreign companies.

    44D. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 28 to 44C, in the case of an assessee, being a foreign company,—

    (a) the deductions admissible under the said sections in computing the income by way of royalty or fees for technical services received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by the foreign company with Government or with the Indian concern before the 1st day of April, 1976, shall not exceed in the aggregate twenty per cent of the gross amount of such royalty or fees as reduced by so much of the gross amount of such royalty as consists of lump sum consideration for the transfer outside India of, or the imparting of information outside India in respect of, any data, documentation, drawing or specification relating to any patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process or trade mark or similar property;

    (b) no deduction in respect of any expenditure or allowance shall be allowed under any of the said sections in computing the income by way of royalty or fees for technical services received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by the foreign company with Government or with the Indian concern after the 31st day of March, 1976 but before the 1st day of April, 2003;

    (c) [***]

    (d) [***]

    Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

    (a) "fees for technical services" shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vii) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

    (b) "foreign company" shall have the same meaning as in section 80B;

    (c) "royalty" shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

    (d) royalty received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by a foreign company with Government or with the Indian concern after the 31st day of March, 1976, shall be deemed to have been received in pursuance of an agreement made before the 1st day of April, 1976, if such agreement is deemed, for the purposes of the proviso to clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 9, to have been made before the 1st day of April, 1976.

  • Section - 44DA

     

    Special provision for computing income by way of royalties, etc., in case of non-residents.

    44DA. (1) The income by way of royalty or fees for technical services received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by a non-resident (not being a company) or a foreign company with Government or the Indian concern after the 31st day of March, 2003, where such non-resident (not being a company) or a foreign company carries on business in India through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs professional services from a fixed place of profession situated therein, and the right, property or contract in respect of which the royalties or fees for technical services are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed place of profession, as the case may be, shall be computed under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession" in accordance with the provisions of this Act :

    Provided that no deduction shall be allowed,—

    (i) in respect of any expenditure or allowance which is not wholly and exclusively incurred for the business of such permanent establishment or fixed place of profession in India; or

    (ii) in respect of amounts, if any, paid (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses) by the permanent establishment to its head office or to any of its other offices :

    Provided further that the provisions of section 44BB shall not apply in respect of the income referred to in this section.

    (2) Every non-resident (not being a company) or a foreign company shall keep and maintain books of account and other documents in accordance with the provisions contained in section 44AA and get his accounts audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 before the specified date referred to in section 44AB and furnish by that date the report of such audit in the prescribed form77 duly signed and verified by such accountant.

    Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

    (a) "fees for technical services" shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vii) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

    (b) "royalty" shall have the same meaning as in Explanation 2 to clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

    (c) "permanent establishment" shall have the same meaning as in clause (iiia) of section 92F.

  • Section - 44DB

     

    Special provision for computing deductions in the case of business reorganization of co-operative banks.

    44DB. (1) The deduction under section 32section 35Dsection 35DD or section 35DDA shall, in a case where business reorganisation of a co-operative bank has taken place during the financial year, be allowed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

    (2) The amount of deduction allowable to the predecessor co-operative bank under section 32section 35Dsection 35DD or section 35DDA shall be determined in accordance with the formula—

      A × B  
      C  
    where A = the amount of deduction allowable to the predecessor co-operative bank if the business reorganisation had not taken place;
      B = the number of days comprised in the period beginning with the 1st day of the financial year and ending on the day immediately preceding the date of business reorganisation; and
      C = the total number of days in the financial year in which the business reorganisation has taken place.

    (3) The amount of deduction allowable to the successor co-operative bank 78[or to the converted banking company] under section 32section 35Dsection 35DD or section 35DDA shall be determined in accordance with the formula—

      A × B  
      C  
    where A = the amount of deduction allowable to the predecessor co-operative bank if the business reorganisation had not taken place;
      B = the number of days comprised in the period beginning with the date of business reorganisation and ending on the last day of the financial year; and
      C = the total number of days in the financial year in which the business reorganisation has taken place.

    (4) The provisions of section 35Dsection 35DD or section 35DDA shall, in a case where an undertaking of the predecessor co-operative bank entitled to the deduction under the said section is transferred before the expiry of the period specified therein to a successor co-operative bank 79[or to a converted banking company] on account of business reorganisation, apply to the successor co-operative bank 79[or to the converted banking company] in the financial years subsequent to the year of business reorganisation as they would have applied to the predecessor co-operative bank, as if the business reorganisation had not taken place.

    (5) For the purposes of this section,—

    (a) "amalgamated co-operative bank" means—

    (i) a co-operative bank with which one or more amalgamating co-operative banks merge; or

    (ii) a co-operative bank formed as a result of merger of two or more amalgamating co-operative banks;

    (b) "amalgamating co-operative bank" means—

    (i) a co-operative bank which merges with another co-operative bank; or

    (ii) every co-operative bank merging to form a new co-operative bank;

    (c) "amalgamation" means the merger of an amalgamating co-operative bank or banks with an amalgamated co-operative bank, in such manner that—

    (i) all the assets and liabilities of the amalgamating co-operative bank or banks immediately before the merger (other than the assets transferred, by sale or distribution on winding up, to the amalgamated co-operative bank) become the assets and liabilities of the amalgamated co-operative bank;

    (ii) the members holding seventy-five per cent or more voting rights in the amalgamating co-operative bank become members of the amalgamated co-operative bank; and

    (iii) the shareholders holding seventy-five per cent or more in value of the shares in the amalgamating co-operative bank (other than the shares held by the amalgamated co-operative bank or its nominee or its subsidiary, immediately before the merger) become shareholders of the amalgamated co-operative bank;

    79[(ca) "banking company" shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (c) of section 5 of Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);]

    (d) "business reorganisation" means the reorganisation of business involving the amalgamation or demerger of a co-operative bank 80 [or conversion of a primary co-operative bank];

    80[(da) "conversion" means transition of a primary co-operative bank to a banking company under the scheme of the Reserve Bank of India as notified vide its circular number DCBR. CO. LS. PCB. Cir. No. 5/07.01.000/2018-19, dated the 27th September, 2018;

    (db) "converted banking company" means a banking company formed as a result of conversion from primary co-operative bank;]

    (e) "co-operative bank" shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (cci)of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);

    (f) "demerger" means the transfer by a demerged co-operative bank of one or more of its undertakings to any resulting co-operative bank, in such manner that—

    (i) all the assets and liabilities of the undertaking or undertakings immediately before the transfer become the assets and liabilities of the resulting co-operative bank;

    (ii) the assets and the liabilities are transferred to the resulting co-operative bank at values (other than change in the value of assets consequent to their revaluation) appearing in its books of account immediately before the transfer;

    (iii) the resulting co-operative bank issues, in consideration of the transfer, its membership to the members of the demerged co-operative bank on a proportionate basis;

    (iv) the shareholders holding seventy-five per cent or more in value of the shares in the demerged co-operative bank (other than shares already held by the resulting bank or its nominee or its subsidiary immediately before the transfer), become shareholders of the resulting co-operative bank, otherwise than as a result of the acquisition of the assets of the demerged co-operative bank or any undertaking thereof by the resulting co-operative bank;

    (v) the transfer of the undertaking is on a going concern basis; and

    (vi) the transfer is in accordance with the conditions specified by the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, having regard to the necessity to ensure that the transfer is for genuine business purposes;

    (g) "demerged co-operative bank" means the co-operative bank whose undertaking is transferred, pursuant to a demerger, to a resulting bank;

    (h) "predecessor co-operative bank" means the amalgamating co-operative bank or the demerged co-operative bank 80 [or the primary co-operative bank which has been succeeded as a result of conversion], as the case may be;

    80a[(ha) "primary co-operative bank" shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (ccv) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);]

    (i) "successor co-operative bank" means the amalgamated co-operative bank or the resulting bank, as the case may be;

    (j) "resulting co-operative bank" means—

    (i) one or more co-operative banks to which the undertaking of the demerged co-operative bank is transferred in a demerger; or

    (ii) any co-operative bank formed as a result of demerger.

  •